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that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如

Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role。

No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.


one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:

A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

[A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this




For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.



Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.


It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.


Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.




由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。

Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.

Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination

If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink

2.当no one, everyone, each,everybody, none ,anybody, someone, somebody用作主语或主语的限定词时候,或者anything, nothing, something everything等不定代词作主语时候,其相应的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如:

Everybody talked at the top of his voice.

None of the boys can do it , can he?

Everything is ready, isn’t it?

3.当主语为复数形式,后跟each作同位语时,如果each位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。如:

They each have two coats

we are each responsible for his own family


如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident

(四) 主谓一致问题








Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her.


To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.


Two weeks was too long

Five times five makes twenty five


law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂水

a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉

the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索

horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月

bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落

如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe.

A. is B. are C. was d. were



Linguistics is a branch of study on human language.


The chaos was stopped by the police

The news is a great encouragement to us

A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend.

6.用and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时候,动词谓语用单数形式

Bread and butter is our daily food

Time and tide waits for no man

二. 谓语用复数情况

1. 由and, both …and, 连接的并列主语,和both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动词通常用复数形式。

Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.

2.集体名词police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth后常用复数形式的动词

The Chinese people are brave and hardworking

The cattle are grazing in the sunshine


The Japanese were once very aggressive


The rich are not always selfish


Three million tons of coal were exported that year


1. 就近一致原则


1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 等连接的并列主语

Neither money nor fame has influence on me

Not only you but also he is wrong

2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致

Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman.

Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.

Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facili

2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致

Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations.

The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981年考研题)


Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.


There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.


4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等

Two-thirds of people present are women

Lots of damage was caused by the fire

5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等

The family is the basic unit of our society

The family were watching the TV

The audience was enormous

The audience were greatly moved at the words



a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数


the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数


more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数

many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数


the greater part of

a large proportion of

50% of

one third of

plenty of

the rest of

谓语的数与of 后面的名词一致



not only….. but also ……

not …..but ……

谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but引导的后面部分)一致.


More students than one have been referred to

More than one student is going to buy this book

考研英语语法五大难点总结二 代词、主谓一致(附带真题讲解)